The sighting of a new crescent moon marks the start of Ramadan, a time for piety and self-reflection.

新月的出现标志着斋月的开始,斋月是虔诚和自我反省的时刻。

BYESLAH ATTAR

作者:埃斯拉·阿塔尔

EVERY YEAR, MUSLIMS around the world anticipate the sighting of the new crescent moon that signifies the official first day of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and the most sacred month in Islamic culture. ??

每年,世界各地的穆斯林都期待看到新月,这标志着斋月正式开始的第一天,斋月开始于伊斯兰历的第九个月,这也是伊斯兰文化中最神圣的月份。

The start of Ramadan fluctuates each year because the lunar Islamic calendar follows the phases of the moon. The beginning and end of Ramadan are determined by a moon sighting committee in Saudi Arabia. It begins the day after the committee spots the new crescent moon, which can be tricky since it’s quite faint and can be seen for only about 20 minutes. If the moon isn’t visible to the naked eye because of haze or clouds, lunar calculations are used to predict whether it’s in the sky. This year Ramadan is predicted to begin on April 12, and to end May 12 with Eid al-Fitr celebrations.

斋月每年开始的时间都有波动,因为伊斯兰历法遵循月相。斋月的开始和结束是由沙特阿拉伯的一个月球观测委员会决定的。斋月开始于委员会发现新月的第二天,但这可能比较难以捉摸,因为新月往往非常微弱,而且只能看到大约20分钟。如果由于薄雾或云层的原因,月球甚至用肉眼都看不见的情况下,委员会则会通过月球计算来预测新月是否在天空中。今年的斋月预计从4月12日开始,到5月12日开斋节结束。

Origin of Ramadan

斋月的起源

Ramadan, one of the months in the Islamic calendar, was also part of ancient Arabs’ calendars. The naming of Ramadan stems from the Arabic root “ar-ramad,” which means scorching heat. Muslims believe that in A.D. 610, the angel Gabriel appeared to Prophet Muhammad and revealed to him the Quran, the Islamic holy book. That revelation, Laylat Al Qadar—or the “Night of Power”—is believed to have occurred during Ramadan. Muslims fast during that month as a way to commemorate the revelation of the Quran.

斋月是伊斯兰历法中的一个月,也是古阿拉伯历法的一部分。斋月的名字来源于阿拉伯语词根“ar-ramad”,意思是灼热的天气。穆斯林相信在公元610年,天使加百列出现在先知穆罕默德面前,并向他揭示了伊斯兰教的圣书《古兰经》。这个被称为“力量之夜”的启示被认为发生在斋月期间。所以穆斯林在这个月禁食以纪念《古兰经》的启示。

The Quran consists of 114 chapters and is taken to be the direct words of God, or Allah. The hadith, or accounts by the companions of Prophet Muhammad’s thoughts and deeds, supplement the Quran. Together they form the religious texts of Islam.

《古兰经》共有114章,被认为是上帝或真主安拉的直接话语。而《圣训》是先知穆罕默德的同伴对其思想和行为所作的记述,被视为《古兰经》的一个补充。它们共同构成了伊斯兰教的宗教文本。

The month of observance

仪式月


muslims praying outside near the Dome of the Rock.
Muslim worshippers pray near the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem's Al-Aqsa Mosque during Ramadan.

斋月期间,穆斯林礼拜者在耶路撒冷阿克萨清真寺的圆顶清真寺附近祈祷。



After the last day of Ramadan, Muslims celebrate its ending with Eid al-Fitr—the “festival of breaking the fast”—which begins with communal prayers at daybreak. During these three days of festivities, participants gather to pray, eat, exchange gifts, and pay their respects to deceased relatives. Some cities host carnivals and large prayer gatherings, too.

斋月的最后一天过后,穆斯林会庆祝开斋节的结束,开斋节从拂晓集体祈祷开始。在这三天的庆祝活动中,人们聚在一起祈祷、吃饭、交换礼物,并向已故的亲人表达敬意。一些城市也会举办嘉年华会和大型祈祷集会。